260 HISTORY OF WESTERN EDUCATION cultivate."* Not content with this general statement, which only expresses an idea that had been a commonplace of educators since the time of Quintilian, he proceeds to discuss in quite modern fashion the various types of mind to be found in children, and the educational treatment appropriate to each type. The other teachers were probably less concerned about the analysis of the child-mind in this manner, but they were at one in seeking to adapt instruction to the child. A striking illustration of the general preoccupation with the devising of easy methods of learning, is afforded by the fact that Pascal, though not himself a teacher, invented the phonetic method of teaching readingóby the use of the sound-values of the lettersófor the benefit of the scholars of Port Royal. The common principle of the school work . was that learning should begin with what is familiar. It was this that led the teachers of the Little Schools, as it had led Comenius, to make a beginning with the vernacular before going on to Latin; but being less interested in knowledge for its own sake than Comenius, they laid stress on expression rather than on acquisition. Their first aim was to make the children able to write good French as a preparation for writing good Latin. Incidentally, however, they directed the children's minds to concrete things and made them write on their own experiences or on subjects about which they had been reading. Once the pupils had made good progress in French, they passed to the study of Latin, and here again interest was sought in the familiar. They were set to learn the rules of grammar, it is true, but instead of having to learn them in Latin, as was commonly done, they used an abridged grammar written by Lancelot in French, and at the same time made the acquaintance of the authors they were to study later through specially prepared translations. When they had acquired some knowledge of grammar they proceeded to read and translate the Latin authors; and once more it was literary elegance that was made the main consideration. The chief rules for translation were characteristic: " (a) The spirit and style of the original must as far as possible be preserved; (6) the difference between the beauties of prose and of poetry must be reproduced in translation; (c) the translation should not be slavishly literal, but should be elegant and read like the work of a French author ; (d) the trans- lation must be clear: if necessary, expand the original, or if its * Barnard, p. 90.